Light photons, or any electromagnetic wave, have no inherit means of propulsion; they are all identical, and vary only in length and frequency. They travel across the universe riding on dark-energy-radiation as a diffused-wave, and travel at 300 million-meters-per-second ("the speed of light"). Light photons are massless and have an ultra-weak positive charge. They are carried along by dark-energy-radiation until they encounter an electron of an atom-mass. A moving photon is diffuse, and is "spread-out" along the entire length of the discrete dark-energy-radiation wave. The photon becomes particle-like only upon upon encountering mass; striking an atom's electron. There photons are deposited on the negative charge of an electron. In the two-slit experiment, a diffused-wave (spread-out) photon enters both slits, and then each of the two parts of the discrete-wave becomes a point-particle upon contacting a surface; an atom's electron.
Gravity is the force of dark-energy-radiation, that surrounds any massive object in the universe; as the object's atoms (electrons and protons) are being charged, energized/vibrated. Dark-energy-radiation travels/radiates across the universe at the speed of 300 million-meters-per-second ("speed of light"). However in passing through any massive object, DER's speed is slight slowed. This results in a collecting of dark-energy-radiation around any encountered object. This collection of dark-energy-radiation is in fact, "gravity". Gravity is the difference in the speed/force of dark-energy-radiation moving through "space" approaching and engaging a massive object, and the reduced speed/force of dark-energy-radiation passing through and emerging from the massive object. The more massive and larger the object, necessarily the greater the force/pressure of the surrounding gravity; thus creating the gravitational constant for that body.
Magnetism is the flow of dark-energy-radiation that takes place because the structure of a majority of the atoms (electrons) in a material, are aligned in one direction. This creates a north pole and an opposite end south pole. In two bar magnets, like poles (north to north, or south to south) strongly repel each other. Opposing poles, (north to south, or south to north) strongly attract each other. Normally dark-energy-radiation that surrounds atoms energizes them randomly. But because of the structured alignment of electrons (spin-structure) in magnetized material, dark-energy-radiation is more strongly vector-directed to energize the atoms by traveling in only one direction. So opposing magnetic force; is the force of focused dark-energy-radiation, engaging an opposing flow of focused dark-energy-radiation; the attracted magnetic force, is the directed flow of focused dark-energy through one magnet into the like-structure-aligned spinning-atoms (directed flow) of the second magnet. This naturally continually energizes the atoms, but also creates the magnetic force; (which is focused/directed dark-energy-radiation; gravity). So when we try to press two bar magnets together, N pole to N pole (or S pole to S pole), we can feel the flow and force of the energizing, radiating dark-energy-radiation, (which we call magnetism).
Time, is the charging and recharging of atoms throughout the Universe by the flow of dark-energy-radiation, as atoms are constantly being charged and recharged/renewed by the flow of dark-energy-radiation. Any previous state of atom-vibrations constitute the past, present atom-vibrations create the present, and future atom-vibrations will produce a future; so of course the atoms of your body can never go back into the past, to a past-vibrational-state. Matter can exist for billions of years, only because of the continual charging and recharging of atoms in any massive body.
Gravity, being just one of the four known forces powered by dark-energy-radiation; gives us the numeric-value of negative charge for dark-energy-radiation.
In SI units, the 2006 CODATA recommended value of the gravitational constant is:
G=(6.67428) x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2
So, considering the force of dark-energy-radiation as Gravity; the force acting on one-kg of mass on the earth, for one-second-sq would be:
6.67428 x 10^-11 / 1 this equals: 6.67428 x 10^-11
and because of the inherit character (nature/action) of dark-energy-radiation, this needs to be divided by c-square: 300,000,000 mps^2 (which equals) (9 x 10^16)
This gives: 6.67428 x 10^-11 / 9 x 10^16 (which equals) = 7.415866667 x 10^-28
So, 7.415866667 x 10^-28 is the ultra-weak, negative-electrical charge of dark-energy-radiation energizing/vibrating (creating a charge) for one-kg of atoms on the earth, for 1-second.
A bar-magnet can generate induced current flow in a loop of wire, as the bar-magnet passes through the loop. This moving vectored-dark-energy-radiation (magnetism), creates an alignment of atoms in the wire, that spin in one-direction when the bar-magnet approaches; and spin in the opposite direction as the bar-magnet is removed. This creates a current flow of electrons in one-direction, and a reversal of current flow in the loop when the bar-magnet is reversed. The path of least resistance for the dark-energy-radiation flow (magnetism) is naturally through the North and South poles of the spinning atoms, and thus the axis of the poles is perpendicular to the direction of current flow. This alignment of rotating/spinning atoms/electrons creates a centrifugal-force effect in the wire (conductor), and this aligned centrifugal-force-spin creates electron current-flow.
Aligned-structure-atoms in magnets are not energized by dark-energy-radiation that is encountered randomly, from all directions, as in other substances, but rather by their directionally-aligned atoms, electron-rotation and spin, and magnetic-poles structure. The counter EMF magnetic field that surrounds a conductor in an operating electrical circuit is dark-energy-radiation that is vector aligned perpendicular to the direction of current flow. Because of electron-flow, and the atom's electron rotation and spin in the conductor, dark-energy-radiation is directed through the N and S poles of spinning atoms; the path of least resistance.
Magnetism and electric-current flow are similar; energizing dark-energy-radiation being focused and passing through the poles of aligned atom-electrons in magnetic material. Or, an electric-charge that is vector-directed, forcing electron-flow-and-spin, in the conductor of a closed electrical circuit. This in turn produces a magnetic-field, counter-emf of dark-energy-radiation flow, that is 360-degrees circular and perpendicular to the current-flow direction; and passes through the N and S poles of the spinning atoms. When we try to press two bar magnets together, N pole to N pole, or S pole to S pole, you can feel the flow and pressure/resistance of the energizing dark-energy-radiation.
However, as magnets possess somewhat, aligned-electron structured atoms, so their re-energizing by dark-energy-radiation is not random from all directions, but directionally-focused. A bar-magnet can generate current flow in a loop of wire, as the bar-magnet passes through the loop. This moving, concentrated, magnetism (dark-energy-radiation), creates an alignment of atoms in the wire, that spin in one-direction when the bar-magnet approaches; and spin in the opposite direction as the bar-magnet is removed. This creates a current flow of
electrons in one-direction, and a reversal of current flow in the loop when the bar-magnet is reversed. The path of least resistance for the dark-energy-radiation flow (magnetism) is naturally through the poles of the spinning atoms. This creates a centrifugal-force effect for the spinning atoms in the wire, as they're forced to spin in one direction only; this aligned
centrifugal-force of spinning atoms creates electron current-flow. Therefore, a magnetic-electric-generator can direct a focused stream of electrons into a closed electrical circuit, thus forcing electron flow through a closed, insulated path.
In 1934 George Lemaitre interpreted the cosmological-constant to be due to vacuum-energy, and vacuum-energy should more correctly be defined as dark-energy-radiation that is being generated from outside of our known universe. Even with the expansion of our universe, radiation and matter are not being cooled down, because dark-energy-radiation creates the gravitational-force that produces continuing heat and energy from the fusion of atoms in massive objects; stars. Space, does not exist. What is thought of as "space" is actually invisible "dark-energy-radiation". Because we're born into a mass-visible-universe, we think of "space" as being simply a vacuum; without stepping outside our misconceptions, and realizing it ("space") is actually radiated-dark-energy, and is not detectable or visible because it has zero-mass, possesses an ultra-weak negative charge, and radiates at the "speed of light". As dark-energy-radiation is massless, gravitational-waves are not created following the collapse of a dying star into a neutron-star, or black-hole.
Dark-energy radiation comprises ninety-five percent of our universe, visible mass only five percent. Our universe was created when "pure-energy" (existing in a closed, vacuum envionment), and possessing an ultra-weak positive-charge, suddenly combined with the surrounding "dark-matter-sea", which possessed an ultra-weak negative-charge. The electrical explosive-reaction created a plasma of two substances; quarks/protons (which had a positive charge), and electrons (which have a negative charge). As the plasma cooled, together they created hydrogen atoms, the only original mass in our universe.
Since the original "dark-matter-sea" exists in an absolute-zero temperature environment, our expanding-universe was shaped out of the surrounding sea of "dark-matter", by the heat and energy present in the creation of mass; when the explosive-reaction of ultra-weak positive-charge "pure-energy", was combined with the ultra-weak negative-charge "dark-matter-sea". The present-limits of our expanding-universe are determined by the heat difference between the surrounding, absolute-zero temperature of the "dark-matter-sea" our sphere-shaped universe exists in; and the heat-and-energy temperature of our physical/visible universe. The heat and energy from our universe creates the release of dark-energy-radiation, from the absolute-zero-temperature "dark-matter-sea" that surrounds our universe. This dark-energy-radiation, charges, energizes/vibrates atoms; and this also accounts for our ever expanding-universe. "Space" does not exist. What we've known as "space", is diffuse "dark-energy-radiation, radiating from the "dark-matter-sea" surrounding our sphere shaped universe; much like a gas-bubble existing in a loaf of bread. Uniform dark-energy-radiation explains why all massive objects in the universe are spherical shaped; and galaxies are spirals or spheres.
Dark-energy-radiation is the massless, ultra-weak negative-charged radiation that energizes the magnet's aligned atomic-structure. All atoms of mass are constantly being charged/refreshed/energized by the injected dark-energy-radiation that permeates throughout the entire universe and moves at the "speed of light" (300 million-meters-per-second). However, aligned-structure atoms in magnets, are energized by dark-energy-radiation that is not encountered randomly (from all directions), as in other substances, but rather by their directionally-aligned atomic electron-spin-structure. The magnetic field that surrounds a conductor in an operating electrical circuit is dark-energy-radiation. It is vector aligned 360-degrees circular, and perpendicular to the direction of current flow; because electron-flow and atom-spin create north and south poles throughout the conductor.
Dark-matter/dark-energy is more than five times as abundant as all the matter detected in the visible universe. It's origin is outside of our closed universe, and leads to the universe's expansion. The "speed-of-light", is the continuous speed of dark-energy-radiation inside our closed universe; on which light photons (electro-magnetic particles/waves) are being carried along. However, the dark-energy-radiation that is engaging massive objects, and thus
creating a gravitational field, physicists have referred to as being "Dark Matter", but the same dark-energy-radiation that exists in the absence of mass, they've referred to as being "Dark-Energy".
Dark-energy-radiation stimulates electrons, creating atom vibrations, and the charge between the positive charge protons, and the negative charge electrons. Atom-vibrations, (charging), accounts for the passage of, and creation of, "Time"; with it's past, present, and future state. Without this vibration of atoms, there would be no "strong" or "weak" nuclear force. Electrons would lose energy and collapse into the atom's nucleus, and the universe would cease to exist. So in the equation, M = E / C2; Mass (M) is equal to Energy (E) being acted upon by DER (C2).
Dark-energy radiation comprises ninety-five percent of our universe, visible mass only five percent. Our universe was created when "pure-energy" (existing in a closed, vacuum envionment), and possessing an ultra-weak positive-charge, suddenly combined with the surrounding "dark-matter-sea", which possessed an ultra-weak negative-charge. The electrical explosive-reaction created a plasma of two substances; protons (which had a positive charge), and electrons (which have a negative charge). As the plasma cooled, together they created hydrogen atoms, the only original mass in our universe.
Einstein, using many of the previous discoveries of others, discovered the massive energy that was present in a single atom. Mathematics determined that mass and energy were equal in our universe, when mass was being acted upon by C-square, (E = M x C2). C-square is not simply the speed of light squared. Logic says there must be more to this tremendous-number, other than it being simply an abstract. If as science tells us, matter only makes up 5% of our visible universe; then there must be a force that fits Einstein's equation. Science calls it dark-matter or dark-energy, but in our universe the two are not separate entities; and C-square is dark-energy-radiation that makes up the 95% of the universe, science believes to be missing.
In Einstein's equation, there must be a measurable force/entity that is interacting with Energy to create mass (this is what Einstein called C-square). The speed of light has been determined to be 300 million-meters-per-second. A photon of light has no propulsion mechanics to propel it for 13 billion-light-years to complete it's journey from the farthest point of the universe, to arrive here on earth. The photon of light (and all electro-magnetic energy) must have a means of straight-line dispersion. So then, in Einstein's equation, light being squared has no substance. However, when you realize that light is being propelled/carried by a force, then the equation is clarified. Mass is created/perpetuated by "Energy" being enacted on (divided by) "C2), which is the force that creates an electrical charge between the protons and the electrons in an atom, while the electrons are being energized/vibrated by the straight-line dark-energy-radiation that makes up 95% of our universe. This vibration/energizing creates an ever changing variable-mass; a universe with an ever-changing past, present, and future state.
The value of C-square contained in Einstein's equation is the value of dark-energy-radiation".
What appears to have been a singularity smaller than an atom in the universe’s
creation; occurs because there was no mass (zero mass) in the beginning, only the original substances "pure-energy" (having an ultra-weak positive-charge) and a "dark-energy-sea" (with an ultra-weak negative-charge). The interaction of these two energy-sources created an electrical-chain-reaction-explosion" that produced charged plasma and all the mass of our universe. The four-known forces of our universe (gravity, electro-magnetic, strong-nuclear force, and weak-nuclear force) are all related and result from the effects of dark-energy-radiation within our universe. The "empty-space" between electrons and protons in an atom, is not "space", but actually "dark-energy-radiation". "Space" as we’ve known it, does not exist. "Space" is mass-less "dark-energy-radiation"; that possesses an ultra-weak negative electrical charge.
There are only two original substances in our universe; "pure-energy" and a "dark-matter-sea". Dark-energy-radiation energizes/charges, vibrates (and Perpetuates) atoms, and gives us the ability to live in an ever evolving universe that is composed of the past, present, and future. Atoms are continually being charged, thus allowing for their 13.7 billion year life span. This charging of atoms, allows us to have motion and movements through the continuous random-refreshing of atoms in our universe, (somewhat as a movie projector displays a movie, frame by frame; except this occurs at the "speed of light squared"). Continual refreshing/charging of atoms is responsible for the uncertainty and random nature of the universe; and this continual charging/refreshing of atoms, is recognized by us humans, as the passing of "Time"; creating a past, present, and future-state, of all the atoms of the Universe.
A simple explanation of dark-energy-radiation would be to imagine the universe suspended in the center of a giant basketball. Suppose the lining of the interior of the basketball (sphere) is emitting straight-line radiation in all-directions. This is an analogy of our universe's immersion in a "dark-matter-sea", with dark-energy-radiation activating/vibrating (charging) atoms from all directions (360-deg concave inward). The original "big-bang" background radiation discovered by Bell Labs in 1965, is the dark-energy-radiation that's being continually dispersed into our universe from the decaying "dark-matter-sea" that surrounds the heat and energy of our expanding universe. And, discovery of noise being emitted from the depths of "space" at a magnitude six times greater than expected could be explained as being the dynamic-sound of
dark-energy-radiation, as it's being injected into our enclosed universe.
Super-colliders, that accelerate two protons in opposite directions close to the "speed of light" (using massive magnets), before smashing them together, are simply destroying "mass"; quarks. In the extreme sense, they are not creating new sub-atomic particles; they are only seeing particles being converted back again into their primal substances; "pure-energy" and "dark-energy". Also, the Higgs boson particle does not exist, and gravitons do not exist, because just as heat-energy is not a particle, so also dark energy/dark matter is not massive; and is not a particle.
Seemingly exotic particles observed during the collision of two protons (four quarks), are simply momentary fragments of created mass. These particles exist for nanoseconds, as they are being converted back into energy; simply being pieces of spiraling, decaying mass (protons). Action similar to a soap-bubble that pops into pieces-of-a-soap-bubble, and then vanish. Particle physicists create a name for everything they observe, however insignificant it may be. New exotic particles are not being created when we observe the destruction of a proton (or quarks) , only decaying fragments of destroyed mass; that vanish instantly after their detection. Somewhat like an ice cube dropped on a hot summer sidewalk, that shatters into many pieces then evaporates and disappears. Also, every physicist agrees the "Standard Model of Particle Physics" does not work. It breaks down totally when gravity is introduced into the equation.
And as dark-energy-radiation is slightly slowed (proportional to the mass of any object it passes through), so also is Time slightly slowed in it's gravitational-field; proportional to the object's mass.
The Lorentz transformation is not necessary, as proven by two men named "A" and
(moving at .5C)
(distance of 300M-meters)
In a typical thought experiment: If "B", is moving at speed of .5C, and at the exact same time as he passes "A"; a lightbeam is turned on by "A" that travels 300,000,000 meters, in one second (speed-of-light) to a large white painted building far away.... contrary to the Lorentz transformation theorem, person "B" does not see the light behave differently than "A" does.
Because light photons are not visible until they strike any massive object, they must travel
300,000,000 meters to the building, and as "B" is traveling forward at .5C; in the one-second that light photons traveled to the building "B" has traveled 150,000,000 meters.
Now the light photons must move from the building back to B's eyes (at the speed-of-light), a distance of ... 150,000,000 meters.
AFTER the light-photons arrive at the wall, their return to "B"'s eyes (150,000,000 meters away) would take one-half second .... if "B" were stationary. But because "B" continues to move at .5C, he travels another approximate 50,000,000 meters, (or one-third second at .5C) before the light photons strike his eye (after they have traveling another 100,000,000 meters).
So, "A" sees the lightbeam travel 300,000,000 meters to the building and 300,000,000 meters back to his eyes...the round trip taking a total of two-seconds. And, 300M plus 300M = 600M divided by 2-seconds, equals 300,000,000 meters per second (speed-of-light).
But, "B" sees the lightbeam travel 300,000,000 meters to the building and 100,000,000 back to his eyes, ..... a total distance of 400,000,000 meters in one-and-1/3 seconds. And,
distance divided by time equals speed. So; 400,000,000 meters of distance, divided by 1.333 seconds time equals 300,000,000 meters per second (the speed-of-light). This is not relativity, it's actuality. Both men see the speed-of-light at a constant 300,000,000 meters per second.
Because light moves at a constant speed of 300,000,000 meters per second, .... "A" sees light
moving at a constant speed of 300,000,000 meters per second; .... and "B" also sees light moving at a constant speed of 300,000,000 meters per second.
If "A" had super-vision, and was able to instantaneously see "B"'s eyes, he would see the light photons strike "B"'s eyes .666 seconds before light photons strike his own. Relativity is valid only in the sense that it takes Time for light photons to move from one object (of mass) to another.
And as dark-energy-radiation is slowed proportional to the mass of any object it encounters; so also is time (dark-energy-radiation, around the massive object) slightly slowed proportional to the object's mass.
Positive charge "pure-energy" existed in a vacuum that was enclosed in a sea of negative charge "dark-matter". Being massless, there was no physical universe, until the "membrane" separating these two massless substances "ruptured". The massive electrical-explosion that resulted created physical-mass; the hydrogen atoms that contained one positive charge proton, and one negative charged electron. This electrical reaction (which resulted in an "inflationary universe" that expanded faster than the "speed of light"), created all the mass (hydrogen atoms) of our physical-universe. And the explosive-reaction and heat energy, created an enormous-x hole in the sea of "dark-matter" that our universe now resides in. Since in the beginning there was no mass, initial atom creation during the explosion, would appear as a "singularity"; the first atom/mass created in our universe.